Toby Sanders

Born: about 1789
Died: after 1860
Family relationship: husband of Betsy; father to Augustus, Garrett, Jim, Sally, Judy, Kitty, Thomas, Peachy, Ceasar, Rosetta, and unknown
Role: unknown

Toby was enslaved by Monroe’s uncle, Judge Joseph Jones, in Loudoun County, Virginia until his death in 1805, an then by Jones’ son until 1809 when he was transferred from Jones’ estate to James Monroe through an intermediary, Armistead T. Mason. He was sold with his wife Betsy and seven children in 1828 from Highland to Joseph White, owner of Casa Bianca plantation in Monticello, Florida. As many as six more children were born to Toby and Betsy at Casa Bianca. After emancipation, their descendants took the last name Sanders.

More about Toby:

Advertisement from The Enquirer (Richmond), November 21, 1809
Toby would have been among the enslaved listed in this sale:

The Enquirer (Richmond, Tuesday, November 21, 1809)–1809—1810–en-20-EN-1–txt-txIN-james+monroe+loudoun——-

Joseph Jones Estate Sale – December 21-22, 1809

“Armisted T. Mason
Large white Cow                                15:00
Small red Do                                       17 50
Negroe man named Toby          52:00
2 Spits                                                   0:60
2 Pothangers                                        2:35
Plate warmer                                        0:80
2 Candlesticks & snuffers                  2:25
4 first choice Hogs                              19:60
4 second choice Do                             16:48
4 third choice Do                                 14:20
Stilyards                                                3:25                                    594.30

Negroes Harford, Molley, & Child, Dudley, Cyrus, Toby, George, Moses, Eve, Peggy & Sally purchased by Charles F Mercer, Charles J Love and Armisted B Mason Amounting to         4235

Also the Waggon and two Horses with their Geer purchased by James Rousseau Amounting to


Was transferred to James Monroe the Executor”

Courtesy of the Papers of James Monroe

Albemarle County Deed Book (25:143)

April 5, 1825

“Have granted bargained and sold aliened released and confirmed and by these presents do grant bargain and sell alien release and confirm into the said John Hooff and his heirs a tract of land in the County of Albemarle and the State of Virginia about three miles below Mill on and about one mile from the Rivanna a branch of the James River consisting of seven hundred and eight acres divided into two farms, with a good framed Dwelling house and other improvements on each. Also the following negro slaves, Jesse, Charles, Nelson a Blacksmith, all young men and brothers, William a Carpenter, Joe and Eve his wife and their four children, Armstead and Zachariah both young men, Toby and Betsy his wife with their three children, Solomon and Nancy his wife, Ned & Peggy his wife.”

James Monroe mortgaged Limestone Farm and 21 enslaved people to John Hooff, Cashier of the Farmer’s Bank of Alexandria for $4,735.76. It is difficult to determine whether the individuals listed are at Limestone or at Highland.

Albemarle County Deed Book (26:147)
September 20, 1826

James Monroe mortgaged Limestone Farm and 13 enslaved people to the Bank of Virginia for $3,560.73:

“Unto the said William Dandridge and William Roane the following property that is to say a certain tract of land lying and being in the County of Albemarle about three miles below the town of Milton and one mile North of the Rivanna River adjoining the lands of David Michie, Charles Huckstep [Lathers?] and containing seven hundred five acres more or less together with all the buildings and improvements thereon. Also the following Slaves to wit Toby & Betsey his wife & their seven children now living, Dudley & Eve his wife & their two children now living which said Slaves are at this time on the said James Monroe’s estate in Albemarle above Milton together with the increase of the females.”

James Monroe to James Madison

“OAK HILL Sepr 23d. 1827.

The sale of my slaves, &ca, in Albemarle, it is expected will take place in Novr. so that it will be very pa[in]ful to me, to attend there, at the next meeting You shall however hear from me on the subject.”

Courtesy of Founders Online:

Advertisement from the Richmond Enquirer, 2 November 1827
Toby would have been among the enslaved men advertised in this sale:

Courtesy of Early American Newspapers Series 1-5 (1690-1922)

James Monroe to Samuel L. Gouverneur

“Oak Hill 7 January 1828

My slaves in Albemarle are not yet sold. Col. White of Florida has had thoughts of purchasing them, & intimates that Mr. Astor wod take his funds due and relieve me in the amount; but by a letter rec’d from him today, he hesitates, both on acc’t of the price & the number of children, there among them. How it will terminate, I cannot say.”

Courtesy of New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Samuel L. Gouverneur

“Oak Hill 11 Jan. 1828

I have to day rec’d, a letter from Mr. Watson, who informs me, that he had sold Nelson & Charles only, the first at £700, the other at £400. The rest of the people, remain undisposed of, and the sale to Col. White, or any other person, is uncertain … By selling my negroes I may obtain bonds & as the people who purchase them will be known to the [illegible] which they will take, and by being at liberty to sell them to whom, I please, I may get better prices for them, as I presume, than if I sold all to one person.”

Courtesy of New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Dr. John Brockenbrough

“Oak Hill February 6, 1828

… Col. White of Florida then offer’d to purchase, the whole number, with the exception of those sold in the neighborhood in payment of debts there, and to take them on valuation, to be made by impartial persons.
…The list which I sent you, which I proposed as a substitute, I thought, presented others much more valuable, the [?] being grown & active servants, most of them, and many of the others infants, or very young – I saved now others to add to them, who will more than make up the difference, between the two [illegible]. Not having retained the names, of those sent, I may include some of them in this, but in that case, I will substitute others, having still some others.”

Courtesy of New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Nicholas Trist
Toby, his wife Betsy, and their seven children made up more than half of the thirteen enslaved people discussed in Monroe’s letter to Nicholas Trist (grandson-in-law to Thomas Jefferson). Monroe referenced his September 20, 1826 mortgage:

“Oak Hill Feby 19th 1828

Thirteen of the slaves for sale, in Albemarle, were mortgaged to the bank of Virginia, as an additional security, to the land below Milton, for $3,570. After the failure to sell them on the day appointed, an application was made to me, by Col: White of Florid, to purchase the whole number. I told him of the mortgage, + that he shod have them at a valuation, to be made by impartial persons, if he could obtain of the bank, a release of my debt to it; or failing with it, obtain a like release, in the amt of Mr. Astor. He failed with the bank, but succeeded with Mr. Astor, + the affair is now suspended, by a negotiation, with the bank, to obtain to release of its lien, on those slaves, by the substitution of others, of equal, or greater value here, in which I have experienced a difficulty, which has surprised me. The land was ample security, but I am willing, to give any, in reason, which they may ask.”

Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Nicholas Trist Papers

James Monroe to James Madison

“OAK HILL March 28th. 1828.

I send you a copy of my memoir, which has been reprinted in a pamphlet, under the direction of my friends in Albemarle. I have sold my slaves in that county, to Col: White of Florida, who will take them in families, to that territory. He gives me for them, (with the exception of a few sold there) five thousand dolrs., which are paid, by obtaining for me, a release in that amount, from J. J. Astor, for a loan obtain’d of him in the late war, offerd by himself, on hearing that I was pressd for money—”

Courtesy of Founders Online:

Schedule of Negro Slaves Mortgaged to William Bellamy (1844)

Joseph White, the original owner of Casa Bianca, died in 1839. White’s wife Ellen remarried to Theophilus Beatty. Beatty had financial trouble and mortgaged a group of enslaved individuals to William Bellamy in 1844.

Photograph courtesy of Miranda Burnett

Toby      aged 55   yrs
Betsey    “     50     “
Toby Junr
Peachy and her child Francis”

Courtesy of Jefferson County, Florida Deed Book E:11

List of Negroes on Casa Bianca Plantation – December 31, 1855

Theophilus Beatty died in 1847 and management of Casa Bianca was taken over by J. Patton Anderson, the nephew of Ellen White Beatty.

Toby +
Betsy wife

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

List of Slaves Belonging to Ellen A. Beatty – January 7, 1856

“82 Toby
83 Betsy
84 Ceasar
85 Peyton
86 Rozetta”

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

Undated list from Bills, Receipts, Accounts of J. Patton Anderson – 1847-1872

Betsy + Toby
Jim – Lucy’s husband
Sally – husband not mine
Judy – Henry’s wife
Peyton – grandchild -”

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers: