Garrett Sanders

Born: based on the 1870 census, about 1810
Died: after 1870
Family relationship: Son of Toby and Betsy; brother of Augustus, Jim, Sally, Judy, Kitty, Thomas, Peachy, Ceasar, Rosetta, and unknown.
Role: unknown at Highland; later a blacksmith at Casa Bianca plantation in Florida

Garrett was born into slavery at Highland and sold as a teenager with his family in 1828 to Joseph White, owner of Casa Bianca plantation in Monticello, Florida. Garrett was later documented as a blacksmith at Casa Bianca. After emancipation he took the last name Sanders. Garrett purchased property in Taylor County, Florida and registered to vote in 1867.

More information on Garrett Sanders:

Albemarle County Deed Book (25:143)
James Monroe mortgaged Limestone Farm and 21 enslaved people to John Hooff, Cashier of the Farmer’s Bank of Alexandria for $4,735.76. It is difficult to determine whether the individuals listed are at Limestone or at Highland. Garrett is likely one of the three children of Toby and Betsy below:

“April 5, 1825

Have granted bargained and sold aliened released and confirmed and by these presents do grant bargain and sell alien release and confirm into the said John Hooff and his heirs a tract of land in the County of Albemarle and the State of Virginia about three miles below Mill on and about one mile from the Rivanna a branch of the James River consisting of seven hundred and eight acres divided into two farms, with a good framed Dwelling house and other improvements on each. Also the following negro slaves, Jesse, Charles, Nelson a Blacksmith, all young men and brothers, William a Carpenter, Joe and Eve his wife and their four children, Armstead and Zachariah both young men, Toby and Betsy his wife with their three children, Solomon and Nancy his wife, Ned & Peggy his wife.”

Albemarle County Deed Book (26:147)
James Monroe mortgaged Limestone Farm and 13 enslaved people to the Bank of Virginia for $3,560.73. Garrett is one of the seven children of Toby and Betsey below:

“September 20, 1826

unto the said William Dandridge and William Roane the following property that is to say a certain tract of land lying and being in the County of Albemarle about three miles below the town of Milton and one mile North of the Rivanna River adjoining the lands of David Michie, Charles Huckstep [Lathers?] and containing seven hundred five acres more or less together with all the buildings and improvements thereon. Also the following Slaves to wit Toby & Betsey his wife & their seven children now living, Dudley & Eve his wife & their two children now living which said Slaves are at this time on the said James Monroe’s estate in Albemarle above Milton together with the increase of the females.”

Advertisement from The Enquirer (Richmond), 2 November 1827
Garrett would have been among the enslaved at this sale:

Courtesy of Early American Newspapers Series 1-5 (1690-1922)

James Monroe to Samuel L. Gouverneur

“Oak Hill 7 January 1828

My slaves in Albemarle are not yet sold. Col. White of Florida has had thoughts of purchasing them, & intimates that Mr. Astor wod take his funds due and relieve me in the amount; but by a letter rec’d from him today, he hesitates, both on acc’t of the price & the number of children, there among them. How it will terminate, I cannot say.”

Courtesy of the New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Samuel L. Gouverneur

“Oak Hill 11 Jan. 1828

I have to day rec’d, a letter from Mr. Watson, who informs me, that he had sold Nelson & Charles only, the first at £700, the other at £400. The rest of the people, remain undisposed of, and the sale to Col. White, or any other person, is uncertain … By selling my negroes I may obtain bonds & as the people who purchase them will be known to the [illegible] which they will take, and by being at liberty to sell them to whom, I please, I may get better prices for them, as I presume, than if I sold all to one person.”

Courtesy of the New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Dr. John Brockenbrough

“Oak Hill February 6, 1828

… Col. White of Florida then offer’d to purchase, the whole number, with the exception of those sold in the neighborhood in payment of debts there, and to take them on valuation, to be made by impartial persons.
…The list which I sent you, which I proposed as a substitute, I thought, presented others much more valuable, the [?] being grown & active servants, most of them, and many of the others infants, or very young – I saved now others to add to them, who will more than make up the difference, between the two [illegible]. Not having retained the names, of those sent, I may include some of them in this, but in that case, I will substitute others, having still some others.”

Courtesy of the New York Public Library, James Monroe Papers

James Monroe to Nicholas Trist
Monroe discussed the September 20, 1826 mortgage with Nicholas Trist (grandson of Thomas Jefferson); Garrett was included in the thirteen enslaved people being discussed:

“Oak Hill Feby 19th 1828

Thirteen of the slaves for sale, in Albemarle, were mortgaged to the bank of Virginia, as an additional security, to the land below Milton, for $3,570. After the failure to sell them on the day appointed, an application was made to me, by Col: White of Florid, to purchase the whole number. I told him of the mortgage, + that he shod have them at a valuation, to be made by impartial persons, if he could obtain of the bank, a release of my debt to it; or failing with it, obtain a like release, in the amt of Mr. Astor. He failed with the bank, but succeeded with Mr. Astor, + the affair is now suspended, by a negotiation, with the bank, to obtain to release of its lien, on those slaves, by the substitution of others, of equal, or greater value here, in which I have experienced a difficulty, which has surprised me. The land was ample security, but I am willing, to give any, in reason, which they may ask.”

Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Nicholas Trist Papers

James Monroe to James Madison

“OAK HILL March 28th. 1828.

I send you a copy of my memoir, which has been reprinted in a pamphlet, under the direction of my friends in Albemarle. I have sold my slaves in that county, to Col: White of Florida, who will take them in families, to that territory. He gives me for them, (with the exception of a few sold there) five thousand dolrs., which are paid, by obtaining for me, a release in that amount, from J. J. Astor, for a loan obtain’d of him in the late war, offerd by himself, on hearing that I was pressd for money—”

Founders Online:

Schedule of Negro Slaves Mortgaged to William Bellamy (1844)
Joseph White, the original owner of Casa Bianca, died in 1839. White’s wife Ellen remarried to Theophilus Beatty. Beatty had financial trouble and mortgaged a group of enslaved individuals to William Bellamy in 1844.

Photograph courtesy of Miranda Burnett

“Toby  aged 55 years
Betsey  aged 50 years
Toby Junr
Peachy and her child Francis”

Courtesy of Jefferson County, Florida Deed Book E:113

List of Negroes on Casa Bianca Plantation – December 31, 1855
Theophilus Beatty died in 1847 and management of Casa Bianca was taken over by J. Patton Anderson, the nephew of Ellen White Beatty.


Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

List of Slaves Belonging to Ellen A. Beatty – January 7, 1856

“110         Garrett

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

Bill of Sale: Ellen A. Beatty to J. Patton Anderson – February 28, 1860

Garrett (Blacksmith) aged about 40 years;”

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

Financial Memorandum of J. Patton Anderson—Apr. 1, 1861

Garrett must have six or seven hundred Dollars due him for work done in the last six months…”

Courtesy of the University of Florida Special & Area Studies Collection, J. Patton Anderson Papers:

1867 Voter Registration for Garrett Sanders

Courtesy of the State Library and Archives of Florida: Florida Memory:

1870 US Census, Taylor County, Florida, population schedule, Township 8, p. 4, dwelling 22, family 22

Transcription by James Monroe’s Highland